Safe Drinking Water Act and Interpretation
Author: Thomas W Carter
Key drinking water issues on include problems caused by specific contaminants, such as the gasoline additive methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), perchlorate, and lead, as well as the related issue of the appropriate federal role in providing financial assistance for water infrastructure projects. Congress last reauthorized the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1996, and although funding authority for most SDWA programs expired in FY2003, broad reauthorization efforts are not expected as EPA, states, and water utilities remain busy implementing the requirements of the 1996 amendments. Concerns about perchlorate in drinking water also have returned to the congressional agenda, after the past Congress enacted several provisions on this issue. H.R. 213 has been introduced to require EPA to set a drinking water standard for perchlorate in 2007, and a January 2005 National Academy of Sciences report on the health effects of perchlorate has increased oversight interest in perchlorate regulatory activities at EPA. Concerns over the security of the nation's drinking water supplies were addressed by the 107th Congress through the Bioterrorism Preparedness Act (P.L. 107-188), which amended SDWA to require community water systems to conduct vulnerability assessments and prepare emergency response plans. Subsequent congressional action has involved oversight and funding of water security assessment and planning efforts and research. An ongoing SDWA issue involves the growing cost and complexity of drinking water standards and the ability of water systems, especially small, rural systems, to comply with standards. The issue of the cost of drinking water standards, particularly the new arsenicstandard, has merged with the larger debate over the federal role in assisting communities with financing drinking water infrastructure — an issue that has become more challenging in a time of tightened budgets. Congress authorized a drinking water state revolving fund (DWSRF) program in 1996 to help communities finance projects needed to meet standards. For FY2005, Congress provided $843 million for the DWSRF program, and the President has requested $850 million for FY2006. Notwithstanding this program, studies show that a large funding gap exists and will grow as SDWA requirements increase and infrastructure ages.
New interesting textbook: Globalized Islam or Best Laid Plans
Insulin Resistance and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Pathogenesis, Evaluation, and Treatment
Author: Evanthia Diamanti Kandarakis
Despite dizzyingly fast-paced advances over the past two decades, even the definition of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) remains in dispute. Insulin Resistance and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Pathogenesis, Evaluation, and Treatment highlights the recent transition of PCOS from an infertility disorder with a diagnosis based on ovarian tissue histology to a more complex clinical entity, a metabolic disorder in which insulin resistance plays a central role. With an expert panel of authors, each chapter provides an up-to-date and balanced overview of PCOS, paying special attention to the central role of insulin resistance in the syndrome's pathogenesis and in the management of its reproductive and metabolic abnormalities.
Comprehensive and thought-provoking, Insulin Resistance and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Pathogenesis, Evaluation, and Treatment is an invaluable resource for endocrinologists, gynecologists, and internists eager to learn more about this controversial and challenging disease.
Features: An up-to-date and balanced overview of PCOS, with specific attention to the role of insulin resistance in its pathogenesis, Examines diet and lifestyle factors in the aetiology and management of PCOS.
Doody Review Services
Reviewer:Monica Mortensen, DO(University of Chicago Medical Center)
Description:This is an overview of the association between insulin resistance and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with a special focus on pathogenesis, evaluation, and treatment. The book also focuses on the other metabolic and fertility issues occurring in PCOS.
Purpose:The purpose is to provide an up-to-date overview of PCOS and its metabolic consequences, specifically insulin resistance.
Audience:Although it can be used by students and residents, it is written primarily for practitioners whose focus is either in endocrinology or obstetrics/gynecology.
Features:The book discusses the pathogenesis of PCOS including both genetic and environmental factors that influence insulin resistance and PCOS. It reviews the complications and available therapeutic options. The chapters pertaining to adrenarche and the related genes are helpful. The only shortcoming is the organization of the chapters, which could have been better arranged for better flow of information.
Assessment:The book is useful and the information is current and relevant. As a pediatric endocrinologist, I found the obstetrics/gynecology chapters helpful, since I don't frequently manage the fertility issues of PCOS.
Table of Contents:Preface vii
Evaluation for Insulin Resistance and Comorbidities Related to Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Ricardo Azziz 1
Fat Distribution and Adipose Products in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Enrico Carmina 15
Treatment of Infertility in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Ovulation Induction Deborah S. Wachs R. Jeffery Chang 25
Imaging Studies in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Sophie Jonard Yann Robert Yves Ardaens Didier Dewailly 39
Genes Related to Metabolic Abnormalities or Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Hector F. Escobar-Morreale 49
Anti-Androgens Kursad Unluhizarci Fahrettin Kelestimur 69
Lipid Abnormalities in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Djuro Macut 79
Serine Phosphorylation, Insulin Resistance, and the Regulation of Androgen Synthesis Andrew A. Bremer Walter L. Miller 99
Chronic Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Oral Contraceptive Pills Shahla Nader 115
Insulin-Sensitizing Drugs for the Treatment of Infertility in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Cynthia S. Ryan John E. Nestler 133
Dietand Lifestyle Factors in the Etiology and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome R. J. Norman L. J. Moran 147
Adrenarche: The Interrelationship of Androgens/Insulin on the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome/Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Sharon E. Oberfield Natasha Leibel Lauren Antler Miriam Silfen Lenore S. Levine Mary Horlick Goldy Carbunaru Ximena Lopez Songya Pang 163
Cardiovascular Disease and Inflammation Francesco Orio, Jr. Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis Stefano Palomba 181
Surgery and Laser Diathermy Stefano Palomba Fulvio Zullo Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis Francesco Orio, Jr. 191
Late Pregnancy Complications in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Dimitrios Panidis Neoklis A. Georgopoulos 209
Glucose Intolerance Vincenzo Toscano 223
Hormonal and Biochemical Evaluation of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Bulent O. Yildiz 241
Endometrial Carcinoma in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Emmanuel Diakomanolis 249
Statins, Oxidative Stress, and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Pinar H. Kodaman Antoni J. Duleba 263
Glucose Intolerance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Focus on the [beta]-Cell David A. Ehrmann 279
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Definitions and Epidemiology Bart C. J. M. Fauser Frank J. Broekmans Joop S. E. Laven Nick S. Macklon Basil Tarlatzis 287
Anovulation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Stephen Franks 297
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Walter Futterweit 303
"Secondary" Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Gregory Kaltsas George Chrousos 317
Long-Term Sequelae of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Association With Insulin Resistance and the Metabolic Syndrome Richard S. Legro 335
The Insulin Resistance of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Marek Demissie Richard S. Legro Andrea Dunaif 349
Therapeutic Aspects of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescence George Mastorakos Carolina Koliopoulos George Creatsas 355
Lifestyle Intervention in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Onno E. Janssen Susanne Tan Susanne Hahn 371
Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System in Metabolism and Fertility: Potential Implication in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Uberto Pagotto Alessandra Gambineri Valentina Vicennati Renato Pasquali 385
Insulin Resistance: Definition and Epidemiology in Normal Women and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women Renato Pasquali Alessandra Gambineri 397
Clinical Evaluation of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Ann E. Taylor 417
Pharmaceutical Intervention in Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis 431
Insulin Resistance and Early Pregnancy Loss in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Daniela Jakubowicz Susmeeta T. Sharma 451